Results and Salient Findings
The 4th census of Minor Irrigation (MI) schemes was conducted with reference year 2006-07 across the country in 33 states and UTs except Daman and Diu and Lakshadweep Islands. The census covered 609 districts and 6,41,062 villages in the country. It involved large scale collection of data for more than 2.1 crore minor irrigation structures and was completed by primary workers in the states under the overall supervision of state nodal departments for minor irrigation statistics under RMIS schemes. Some of the important findings of the census are presented in the following paragraphs.
Number of Minor Irrigation Schemes:
There has been significant increase in the number of minor irrigation structures in the country as observed during the 4th MI census as compared to that in the 3rd. In all 21 million MI schemes were enumerated in 4th census as against 19.7 million found during the previous census. There has been significant growth in ground water schemes from 18.5 million to 19.75 million during the period of 2000-01 to 2006-07. Minor decline has however been observed in the surface water schemes which remain around 1.2 million in number. Uttar Pradesh possesses the largest number of MI schemes in the country ( 42.8 Lakh) followed by Andhra Pradesh ( 23.1 Lakh), Maharashtra ( 22.7 Lakhs ) MI schemes. Tamilnadu ( 19.12 lakh) and Madhya Pradesh ( 19.06 lakh ) also have large number of MI schemes. In Surface Water schemes, M.P ( 2.39 lakh ) possesses the largest number of MI schemes followed by Maharashtra ( 2.19 lakh ), Karnataka ( 1.21 lakh), A.P ( 1.06 lakh ) and Odisha ( 0.89 lakh ) MI surface water schemes.
As during the previous census, predominance of dug wells and shallow tube wells has been observed during IVth MI Census, however, during the 4th census there has been decline in the number of dug wells from 96.2 lakhs during the 3rd census to about 92 lakhs in the 4th census. The numbers of shallow tube wells and deep tube wells have substantially increased from 83.5 and 5.3 lakhs respectively to 91.2 and 14.4 lakhs. On the other hand, there has been decline in surface flow schemes from 6.4 lakhs to 6.0 lakhs while the surface lift schemes have increased from 6.1 lakhs to 6.5 lakhs. As such, we find that there has been shift from dug-wells and surface flow schemes to tube wells and surface lift schemes.
MI schemes are now pre-dominantly owned by individual farmers and very few (less than 5% ) are owned by public institutions. Out of the total 92 lakh tube wells, 73.4 lakh (79.8%) are owned by individual farmers, similarly out of 91.2 shallow tube wells 86.2 lakh ( 94.5 %) and out of 14.4 lakh deep tube wells 12.1 lakh(83.9%) are owned by individual farmers. Surface lift scheme are also pre-dominantly owned by individual farmers with 5.1 lakh (79.2%) out of 6.5 lakh owned by individual farmers. However, from among surface flow schemes about 60% (3.7 lakhs out or 6.00 lakhs) are owned by public sector.
In many states, e.g. UP, Punjab, Rajasthan, M.P., A.P., Tamilnadu, Karnataka, and Maharashtra, the proportion of MI schemes in Public sector is less than 1 %. On the other hand, in states like Chhattisgarh ( more than 60 % ), and Jharkhand ( about 35 % ) higher proportion of MI schemes is in public sector (cooperative societies or government).
About 7 % of MI schemes are located in the tribal areas and about 63 % of the schemes are owned by marginal and small farmers, while only about 3 % are owned by the large ( big ) farmers in the country. The position w.r.t. location of schemes in the tribal areas and the ownership share of marginal and small farmers of MI schemes have remained same as during the 3rd Census.
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Table-1A | Table-1B | Table-2A | Table-2B |
Table-4 | Table-5A | Table-5B | Table-6